Alternative financial gain choices for Farm-Household Members Improve the agricultural Economy of People’s Republic of Bangla
With the advancement of technology and agriculture inputs, production in agriculture has multiplied by several folds. For meeting the rising demand of food provide, the normal crop varieties are replaced by the high yielding varieties. revolution befell within the country due to improved seed varieties, use of chemical fertilizers, enlargement of irrigation facilities etc. it’s simple that this revolution came with the unfortunate and sudden price of ancient crop varieties, natural harmony and ecological balance. Production prices for crops have chaotically leaped, breaking the backbone of the marginal and little farmers. The sequential regimes is pleased with the multiplied production of crops, however let’s not forget that the population has virtually doubled within the last three decades, and costs of necessities have tripled. growth and costs of necessities along have so much exceeded agricultural production.
People in immense range have migrated from villages to cities for different financial gain choices. Migration incorporates a definite reference to agricultural production and inflation. it’s long been argued that our land has lost fertility attributable to indiscriminate intervention, wrong cultivation practices, and inadequate and inappropriate state management policy. The farmers and their ancient practices is questioned however it’s true that they’re invariably left with what they need, and with very little or no facilitate, and with unendurable increase in, and inadequacy of agriculture inputs. the truth was found throughout our observation at the sector level (January – March 2011), for instance, at Kushtia district. The peasants claim, there was a time 7/8 years back after they wont to get twenty maunds (local weight activity unit; forty kgs create one maund) of rice per bigha (local space activity unit; roughly one bigha makes zero.33 acre), however currently they get 7/8 maunds on the common. It’s hard, if not not possible, for the little and marginal land holders to rely on land outputs (crops) alone for his or her family expenses any further.
Now the question arises here – if the agriculture production, i.e., its come is way but family expenditure, however do the farmhouses survive?
Without abundant clarification of peasants’ hardship, helplessness, and sustenance decisions, we have a tendency to see the interior migration of occupations of house members to non-farm activities and mill or business wage laborers. The farmhouses have chosen bovine rearing on business basis, shop-keeping etc., and also the house members have chosen wage labors in mills, workshops, factories, and industries. This development has cut dependency of the farmhouses on financial gain from agriculture crops, and has relaxed burden on their possession of tiny landholdings. The house members staying much within the homes will meet their own expenses, and from time to time, rather invest in agriculture production. it’s noted that the inadequate capital of our farmhouses constrains farm management and crop diversification, that eventually and often results in poor farm production.
Here area unit four case studies from a similar village. within the 1st case study (household-1), the farmer suffers attributable to lack of investment capital, with no off-farm financial gain earners within the family. within the second and third case studies (household-2,3), the farmhouses do well due to the engagement of the menage members in neighboring industries. in keeping with the fourth case study (household-4) even the landless farmer with multiplied labor wages and non-farm activity is up his fashion.
In 2010, Mr. Nuruddin (head of household-1) of village Kathulia village of Kushtia district created maize, jute, paddy (of varieties Gazi, BR-33), til (sesame) and papaya. He invested with a complete of BDT (Tk.) 50600 (USD one = BDT seventy approximately), and got a web come of Tk. 30000. He sold-out out paddy straws, jute stems, a goat, bamboos and jack fruits and attained Tk. 18200. So, his total financial gain throughout the year stood at Tk. 48200, whereas his family expenditure for a similar year was calculable at Tk. 56500.
Mr. Nuruddin, associate degree recent man of eighty, possesses his four daughters married far from village. around the year the relatives visit them, that increase the family expenditures. Moreover, he has got to provide very little money facilitate to them from time to time, and send some farm and homestead product to the daughters’ homes over the previous few years. So, they run family with constraints with food shortage virtually once a year. His solely son could be a public college student, however helps him in farming from time to time. Nuruddin’s adult female grows completely different leaflike vegetables on homestead around the year for home consumptions.
For money constraints attributable to daughters’ wedding, relatives’ visit etc., he couldn’t inflate investment to grow profitable crops, and cannot take excellent care of his crops. So, he typically gets lower harvest, and cannot obtain bovine. He took a loan of Tk. 25000 in 2004, however spent all for family functions, and will not repay the loan in time. In 2008, the loan quantity stood at Tk. 37000 with interest, that he couldn’t repay. So, with the recommendation of a bank commissioned military officer, he got another loan of Tk. 39000, from that he paid back his previous due loan. At the top of 2010 the second due loan stood at around Tk. 43000 once more. He doesn’t savvy to pay back this quantity. At the top of 2010, he gave out two bighas of land on kot (local land leasing system) for Tk. 100000. He says, “Besides outstanding bank loans, once a year I even have a deficit of Tk. 4000-5000. I even have additionally tiny loans from NGOs, that I pay back with hardship, however outstanding bank loans area unit massive tension for me”.
Nuruddin’s son additional, “Farmers get bank loans and end them quickly to fulfill food and different continuous family wants doltishly abundant that they need to repay it in time, and that is the method the loans are available in larger quantity in some years with additional interests, that farmers sell out lands eventually in several cases.”
Rm. Arshed Ali (head of household-2) created rice of various varieties together with Gazi, IRRI-10 and twenty eight. He got a harvest of ninety maunds (3600 kgs) price Tk. 77100. He spent Tk. 29250 for production. His web come was Tk. 47850. He additionally created eggplants of thirty maunds (1200 kgs) price Tk. 15600. He spent Tk. 7000 for this production and got a web come of Tk. 8600. He invested with Tk. 2000 to provide ten maunds (400 kgs) of cabbage price Tk. 5000 with a web come of Tk. 3000. He sold-out paddy straws at Tk. 12000. From all the crops of his land he created a web come of Tk. 71450 in 2010.
In 2010, he reared bovine and created a web come of Tk. 50000 with associate degree investment of Tk. 350000, within which Tk. 30000 is calculable as unpaid menage labor.
Arshed’s one son aged thirty with highschool level education could be a mill manual laborer. Currently, he earns a complete of Tk. 60000 during a year. The family earns a complete of Tk. 181450 annually from each farm produces, bovine and non-farm earning, whereas the family expenditure is calculable at Tk. 180000.
In 2009, Arshed chartered during a work, and however couldn’t create benefit from it, which year he had a seasoner medication search within the village market. From this business he product of profit of around 30000. He additionally works within the village as a go-between in numerous arbitration and judicial proceeding, from that he has associate degree financial gain, that couldn’t be calculable. However, from these additional to the current financial gain from bovine rearing, he created a brick house in 2009-2010.
He said, “With ancient crop production with tiny space of land, we have a tendency to cannot run our family. Since I even have to keep up a family standing, and a few guests additionally return typically, thus my family expenditure is additionally high compared to others. that is why i believe of earning from completely different sources.”
Mr. Abdur Rahim (head of household-3) created rice of various varieties together with Gazi, IRRI-10, 11, 12, 9. He got a harvest of seventy eight maunds (3120 kgs) price Tk. 54200. He spent Tk. 31477 for production. His web come was Tk. 22723. He additionally created jute of eight maunds (320 kgs) price Tk. 12000. He spent Tk. 4000 for this production and got a web come of Tk. 8000. He created onion (2 maunds = eighty kgs) price Tk. 2000 and garlic (1.5 maunds = sixty kgs) price Tk. 6000. For production of each onion and garlic he spent Tk. 2000, and from these he created a web come of Tk. 6000. He sold-out paddy straws and jute stems at Tk. 20000. From all the crops of his land he created a web come of Tk. 56723 in 2010.
In 2010, he reared bovine and created a web come of Tk. 47000 with associate degree investment of Tk. 20000.
Rahim’s 2 sons, one aged thirty two with no formal education, and also the different aged thirty with highschool level education, area unit mill laborers. Currently, they earn a complete of Tk. 156000 during a year. The family earns a complete of Tk. 259723 from each farm produces, bovine and non-farm earning, whereas the family expenditure is calculable at Tk. 199700. This year (2011) he takes another fifteen kathas (local space activity unit; one katha makes roughly one.6 decimals) of land on kot at Tk. 70000.
Around fifteen years back, Rahim compound from folks, and commenced his tiny family on his own. that point he had three bighas of land. He bought another three bighas of land within the last ten years. He bought land items of 10/12 kathas every at a time at Tk. around 20000-30000 per bighas. two years back, he created brick house with a price of around Tk. 300000.
He said, “Income from land is falling currently. Once we have a tendency to got around twenty maunds of rice per bigha. Last year we have a tendency to created 8-10 maunds of rice per bigha. Family financial gain primarily comes from bovine and goats. With this financial gain, I do that that, obtain and increase things. cash for house construction additionally came from bovine rearing. Besides, the elder son works in company for last two years, and also the younger one works for 4/5 years. They augment the financial gain. they assist run family. “
Akram Hossain (head of household-4) owns no land the least bit, however he keeps land for farming once a year. Over years he offers labor to agriculture farms and runs his family with labor wages. He rears bovine and goat once a year, and therefore makes some profit out of it. In 2010, he attained around Tk. 54000 from wage labors at Tk. one hundred fifty per day and at Tk. 4500 on the common per month. In 2010, he unbroken four bighas of land on kot. From the assembly of rice and wheat, he created a earnings of Tk. 22260 and Tk. 4900 severally. He additionally attained Tk. 7200 from sale of paddy straws. From bovine rearing throughout the year, he got a web come of Tk. 15000. He additionally gave out one and 0.5 bighas of land for share cropping, from wherever he got his share of crop price Tk. 6000. From each farm productions, bovine rearing and labor wages, he attained a complete of Tk. 109360. His family expenditure is calculated at Tk. 71000 for year 2010.
When asked regarding his earning and farm production, he said, “The rice i purchase from cultivation remains primarily for family consumption over a year. I sell out different crops. My main supply of financial gain is farm labor, and bovine and goat rearing. I will bear the education expenses of my son of sophistication seven, and can also save cash for next year investment for bovine.”
The other farmers talking regarding Akram commented that Akram doesn’t got to sell out crops since he earns from labor wages to fulfill family expenses. They additionally aforementioned, folks like him within the village do well recently. they’re at stable standing.
Side by facet with the large industries, enlargement of tiny scale industries at the semi-urban areas adjacent to rural areas with correct attention to environmental issues and safety measures all told districts, probably the least bit upazilas and union levels (local body units), will produce larger employment of the house members. native folks return up with their own innovative ideas and enterprises, that recruit rural youth. In several cases, the large business folks and interest teams area unit found acting and propagating against tiny industries. native public officers (line ministries) will resolve such crises if any, and encourage the little entrepreneurs at urban outskirts adjacent to rural areas, with incentives if necessary. If industries notably associated with food process, rural transportation, or menage necessaries grow within the locality of rural areas with correct caution for surroundings and unsafe labor, and while not wasting cultivatable land, will rather save agriculture households from losing lands, facilitate sustaining agricultural production and meeting different expenditures together with those for education. The poor, marginal and little house members area unit found to own invested with share of their financial gain from different off-farm activities (for example, from bovine rearing) and industries in their agriculture farming, that marks a much better management of their agriculture farming and land. this means associate degree improved and inspiring rural econ.